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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is compromised renal function or failure that happens within a few hours or days of an insult. AKI not only causes retention of waste products, but affects electrolyte homeostasis, drug concentrations and systemic inflammation. Full recovery is uncommon, with  both short- and long-term consequences. AKI has many etiologies, but affects an uncommonly high percent of patients (30%) undergoing going CABG surgery with dramatic negative consequences for patients, surgeons, and healthcare systems.

Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) improves blood flow to the heart by grafting vessels from another part of the body around occlusions in coronary arteries.  CABG surgery is recommended for patients with significant coronary heart disease (CHD) that cannot be managed with other therapies, e.g. PCI or angioplasty.  Aging is a major risk factor for CHD and CABG patients are increasingly older, complicated, and at-risk of adverse clinical outcomes and long, expensive hospital stays.

Adapted from the Cardio Renal Society of America

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3  Xu et al Medicine (Baltimore) 94(45): e2025 (2015)

4  Hansen et al J of Cardiovascular and Vascular Anesthesia 29(3):617-625 (2015)

5  Birnie et al Critical Care 18:606 (2014)

6  United States Renal Data System 2018 (https://www.usrds.org/2018/view/v1_05.aspx)

7  Ishani et al Arch Intern Med 171(3): 226-233 (2011)

8  Ryden et al Circulation 130:2005-2011 (2014)